Iron Alloys

Cast Iron Alloy Products

Iron and iron alloys are some of the most versatile engineering materials available. The combination of physical properties such as strength, machinability and ductility make Iron alloys suitable for a wide range of applications. These properties can be further enhanced with variations in composition and manufacturing methods.
Cast iron

Cast iron is produced by smelting iron-carbon alloys that have a carbon content greater than 2%. After smelting, the metal is poured into a mould. Cast iron contains 2–4% carbon and other alloys, and 1–3% of silicon, which improves the casting performance of the molten metal. Small amounts of manganese and some impurities like sulphur and phosphorous may also be present.

Although both steel and cast iron contain traces of carbon and appear similar, there are significant differences between the two metals. Steel contains less than 2% carbon, which enables the final product to solidify in a single microcrystalline structure. The higher carbon content of cast iron means that it solidifies as a heterogeneous alloy, and therefore has more than one microcrystalline structure present in the material.

Iron Melt

It is the combination of high carbon content, and the presence of silicon, that gives cast iron its excellent castability. Various types of cast irons are produced using different heat treatment and processing techniques, including Grey Iron, Ductile (SG) Iron and Ni-Resist Iron.

Grey Iron – is characterized by the flake shape of the graphite molecules in the metal. When the metal is fractured, the break occurs along the graphite flakes, which gives it the grey colour on the fractured metal’s surface.

Ductile Iron, or Spheroidal Graphite Iron, – obtains its special properties through the addition of magnesium into the alloy. The presence of magnesium causes the graphite to form in a spheroid shape small amounts of impurities such as sulphur and oxygen react with the magnesium, affecting the shape of the graphite molecules. Different grades of ductile iron are formed by manipulating the microcrystalline structure around the graphite spheroid. This is achieved through the casting process, or through heat treatment, as a downstream processing step.

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Material Designation

  UK UK Int’l USA Germany
Type BS EN 1561 : 1997 BS 1452 : 1990 ISO AISI / SAE / ASTM DIN
185 A48 1691
GREY IRON EN-GJL-100 Grade 100 Class 20 B GG 10
(FLAKE GRAPHITE) EN-GJL-150 Grade 150 150 Class 25 B GG 15
Grade 180
EN-GJL-200 Grade 200 200 Class 30 B GG 20
Grade 220 Class 35 B
EN-GJL-250 Grade 260 250 Class 40 B GG 25
EN-GJL-300 Grade 300 300 Class 45 B GG 30
EN-GJL-350 Grade 350 350 Class 55 B GG 35
Grade 400 Class 60 B GG 40
  UK UK Int’l    
Type BS EN 1563 : 1997 BS 2789 : 1985 ISO AISI / SAE / ASTM DIN
        A536 1693
DUCTILE IRON EN-GJS-350-22 350/22 EN-JS1010 GGG 35.3
(SPHEROIDAL GRAPHITE) EN-GJS-400-18 400/18 EN-JS1020 60-40-18 GGG 40.3
EN-GJS-400-15 420/12 EN-JS1030 65-45-12 GGG 40
EN-GJS-450-10 450/10 EN-JS1040 70-50-05
EN-GJS-500-7 500/7 EN-JS1050 80-55-06 GGG 50
EN-GJS-600-3 600/3 EN-JS1060 GGG 60
EN-GJS-700-2 700/2 EN-JS1070 100-70-03 GGG 70
EN-GJS-800-2 800/2 EN-JS1080 GGG 80
EN-GJS-900-2 900/2 EN-JS1090 120-90-02
UK UK Int’l    
Type BS EN 13835 : 2002 BS 3468 : 1986 ISO AISI / SAE / ASTM DIN 1694
(FLAKE) EN-JL3011 F1 Ni-Resist 1 A436 Type 1 GGL-NiCuCr 15 6 2
F1 Ni-Resist 1b A436 Type 1B GGL-NiCuCr 15 6 3
F2 Ni-Resist 2 A436 Type 2 GGL-NiCr 20 2
F2 Ni-Resist 2b A436 Type 2 GGL-NiCr 20 3
F3 Ni-Resist 3 A436 Type 3 GGL-NiCr 30 3
(SPHEROIDAL) EN-JS3011 S2 A439 Type D-2 GGG-NiCr 20 2
S2W A439 Type D-2W GGG-NiCrNb 20 2
S2B A439 Type D-2B GGG-NiCr 20 3
S2C A439 Type D-2C GGG-Ni 22
S3 A439 Type D-3 GGG-NiCr 30 1
S3 A439 Type D-3 GGG-NiCr 30 3